Gravity load is given by mass multiplied by gravitational acceleration, g. Consequently, the plastic wave is convergent and will eventually form a shock wave, as sketched in Fig. Thin-walled members under transverse loading 60 d mm 40 20 0 E N m a 80 d mm 60 40 20 0 E N m b 5. Maximum operating pressure of 15 MPa about bar is used. UI Package and Driver support for Windows 7 Here’s other similar drivers that are different versions or releases for different operating systems: The product and the package have become so interdependent that we cannot consider one without the other.
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The results illustrate important features of plastic deformation and dynamic effects, which are inherent in more complex structures. Interested readers should refer to the original paper by Gill for a detailed description and analysis.
This calculation took into account the stretching effect of the mid-surface, as well as the large change in geometry. The recommended threshold 1.
Energy Absorption of Structures and Materials
Impact energy leading to tube material rupture was studied by Shen and Chen Cellulose wadding is an inexpensive form of crepe paper, available in various thicknesses with different backings, facings and embossings. When f increases further, this ratio reduces, e.
Clearly the deformation Fig. For instance, today a typical bicycle helmet available on the market usually weighs — g, but wearers would welcome a new type of helmet, weighing below g. The swinging arms need to be designed so that the impact face only, translates. In plates or shells, the rigid, perfectly plastic idealisation of materials will result in their plastic deformation being concentrated at discrete plastic hinge-lines.
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We thank Stephen Guillow, who carefully read the manuscript and offered many valuable comments, and Xiaodong Huang, who did all the high quality drawings. For instance, Figs 2.
Pure bending tests of steel tubes were also reported by Cimpoeru and Murray and Kim et al. Rings and ring systems For square packed arrays, asymmetrical modes of deformation were observed.
Channel beam with a central load P Figure 5.
Therefore, sufficient ductility of the material and sufficient energy-absorbing capacity of the structures must be considered as major design criteria. It is more a matter of personal choice. Considering the circular ring in our example, we could obtain a smallscale model by applying the same scaling factor, Sl, for all the linear dimensions of the original structure called prototype.
Specimens include steel, brass and aluminium alloy tubes, approximately 0. Consequently, the plastic wave is convergent and will eventually form a shock wave, as sketched in Fig. In all cases, plastic hinges occur at the loading point, contact points and half way between the loading and contact points. After the compression criterion, a Viscous Criterion was developed by General Motors. Failures are mostly attributed to fatigue, corrosion or degradation of material after a long service life.
The strain-rate for the prototype is then 0. The equivalent structure technique can be employed to analyse the collapse behaviour of all the presented cases of laterally constrained tubes.
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There are two extremes: After the maximum elastic displacement of the spring is achieved, the second phase takes place in which the spring will gradually recover from its deformation; the car will be accelerated Fig. For some materials e. Readers are advised to consult Johnson or Johnson Methodology of analysing energy-absorption capacities 49 and Yu to acquire more information on plastic wave propagation.
The equations for the maximum bending moment at the onset of collapse were thus obtained Kecman and Suthurst, However, HIC is still specified in the standards for certifying vehicles, since no other criterion is so widely accepted. This will be further elaborated in Chapter 2. The first arrangement introduces friction between the tube and the constraint block, which leads to unsymmetrical deformation between the upper and lower half Fig. In design and testing, the fundamental requirements for the maximum force and the total energy dissipation have to be satisfied for all the combinations of these uncertainties.
Accordingly, the second term on the left hand side of Eq.